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Abraham et al. (2002). Insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 differentiation of human pancreatic islet-derived progenitor cells into insulin-producing cells. Endocrinology, 143:3152 - 3161.

Akerud P et al. (2002). Persephin-overexpressing neural stem cells regulate the function of nigral dopaminergic neurons and prevent their degeneration in a model of Parkinson's disease. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 21:205 - 222.

Aravidsson A et al.(2002). Neuronal replacement from endogenous precursors in the adult brain after stroke. Nature Medicine, 8/5/2002 (online publication).

Associated Press, "Doctors Use Stem Cells in Heart Repair," 3/5/2003.

Associated Press, "Cell Injections Help Some Heart Patients," 3/31/2003.

Beltrami AP, et al. (2001). Evidence that human cardiac myocytes divide after myocardial infarction. New England J. of Medicine, 344:1750 - 1757.

Bielby RC et al. (2004). In vitro differentiation and in vivo mineralization of osteogenic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Tissue Eng., 10(9-10) :1518 - 1525.

Bohlin RG (2005). The Continuing Controversy Over Stem Cells. (Probe Ministries, online publication).

CDC website,

Chen J et al. (2001). Intravenous administration of human umbilical cord blood reduces behavioral deficits after stroke in rats. Stroke, 32:2682 - 2688.

Clark DL, (2000). Generalized potential of adult neural stem cells. Science, 288:1660 - 1663.

Folkman J and Hochberg M, (1973). Self regulation of growth in three dimensions. J. Exp Med., 138(4):745 - 753.

Fraser JK et al. (2004). Adult stem cell therapy for the heart. Internatl. J. of Biochem. And Cell Biol.

Gearhart J., Testimony before the President's Council on Bioethics, 4/25/2002. Transcript available at

Gearhart J (2001). Quoted by Holden C. in "Would Cloning Ban Affect Stem Cells?" Science, 293:1025.

Hall Stephen S. (2003). Merchants of Immortality: Chasing the Dream of Human Life Extension. Houghton Mifflin.

Hayflick L and Moorhead P (1965). The limited in vitro time of human diploid cell strains. Experimental Research, 37: 614 - 636.

He Z et al. (2002). Human embryonic stem cell lines preliminarily established in China. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 82 (19): 1314 - 1318.

Hofstetter CP et al. (2002). Marrow stromal cells form guiding strands in teh injured spinal cord and promote recovery. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sciences, 2199 - 2204.

Horb ME et al. (2003). Experimental conversion of liver to pancreas. Current Biology, 13:105 - 115.

Humphreys D et al. (2002). Abnormal gene expression in cloned mice derived from embryonic stem cell and cumulus cell nuclei. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 12889 - 12894,

Humphreys D et al. (2001). Epigenetic instability in ES cells and cloned mice. Science, 293:95 - 97.

Institute of Science in Society (12/16/2004). "No Case For Embryonic Stem Cells Research",

Itskovitz-Eldor J, et al. (2000). Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies comprising the three embryonic germ layers. Molecular Medicine, 6:88 - 95.

Jackson KA et al. (2001). Regeneration of ischemic cardiac muscle and vascular endothelium by adult stem cells. J. Clin. Invest., 107:1 - 8.

Jiang Y et al. (2001). Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow. Nature, 418:41 - 49.

Kehat I., et al. (2001). Human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into myocytes portraying cardiobyocytic structural and functional properties. J. Clinc Invest.

Kessler PD, and Bryne BJ (1999). Myoblast cell grafting into heart muscle: cellular biology and potential applications. Annu. Rev. Physiol., 61:219 - 242.

Kocher AA, et al. (2001). Neovascularization of ischemic myocardium by human bone marrow derived angioblasts prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduces remodeling and improves cardiac function. Nat. Med., 7:430 - 436.

Korbling MK et al. (2002). Hepatocytes and epithelial cells of donor origin in recipients of peripheral blood stem cells. New England J. of Medicine, 346:738 - 746.

Kraus DS et al. (2001). Multi organ, multi lineage engraftment by a single bone marrow derived stem cells. Cell, 105:369 - 377.

Lanza R et al. (2002). Generation of histocompatible tissue using nuclear transplantation. Nature Biotechnology (online publication).

Lanza R (3/18/2002). Quoted in the San Francisco Chronicle, (page E 1).

Lanza R et al. (2000). The ethical validity of using nuclear transfer in human transplantation. J. Am. Med. Assoc, 284:3175 - 3179.

Li Y et al. (2002). Human marrow stromal cell therapy for stroke in rat. Neurology, 59: 514 - 523.

Menasche P et al. (2001). Myoblast transplantation for heart failure. Lancet, 357:279 - 280.

Mezey E et al. (2003). Transplanted bone marrow generates new neurons in human brains. Proceed. Natl. Acad. Sciences, 1364 - 1369.

National Institutes of Health,

National Institutes of Health (2001). Stem Cells: Scientific Progress and Future Research Directions.

Niemeyer P et al. (2004). Allogenic transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering purposes : an in vitro study. Orthopade., 33(12):1346 - 1353.

Odorico JS et al. (2001). Multilineage differentiation from human embryonic stem cell lines. Stem Cells, 19:193 - 204.

Okarma T. (5/10/2002). Quoted by Gellene D. in "Clone Profit? Unlikely", Los Angeles Times.

Orlic D et al. (2001). Mobilized bone marrow cells repair the infarcted heart, improving function and survival. Proceed. Natl. Acad. Sciences, 98:10344 - 10349

Orlic D., et al. (2001). Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. Nature, 410:701 - 705.

Ourednik J et al. (2002). Neural stem cells display an inherent mechanism for rescuing dysfunctional neurons. Nature Biotechnology, 20:1103 - 1110.

Pittenger MF, et al. (1999). Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science, 284:143 - 147.

Ramiya VK (2000). Reversal of insulin dependent diabetes using islets generated in vitro from pancreatic stem cells. Nature Medicine, 6:278 - 282.

Ramon-Cueto A et al. (2000). Functional recovery of paraplegic rats and motor axon regeneration in tehir spinal cords by olfactory ensheathing glia. Neuron, 25:425 - 435.

Reuters, "Michigan Teen Gets Stem Cell Transplant to Heart:, 3/5/2003".

Reuters, "Human Heart Cells Working in Rat Hearts," 8/20/2003.

Reuters, "Patients given own stem cells escape heart transplant," 9/1/2003.

Riess P et al. (2002). Transplanted neural stem cells survive, differentiate, and improve neurological motor function after experimental traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery, 51 (online publication).

Rideout WM et al. (2002). Correction of a genetic defect by nuclear transplantation and combined cell and gene therapy. Cell (online publication 3/8/02).

Sasaki M et al. (2001). Transplantation of an acutely isolated bone marrow fraction repairs demyelinated adult rat spinal cord axons. Glia, 35:26 - 34.

Shim WS et al. (2004). Ex vivo differentiation of human adult bone marrow stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 324(2):481 - 488.

Shin DM et al. (2004). Ascorbic acid responsive genes during neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Neuroreport, 15(12):1959 - 1963.

Singapore Straits Times, "Cloning surprise sparks raging controversy," 2/14/2004.

Stamm C et al. (2003). Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration. Lancet, 361:45 - 46.

Strauer BE et al. (2002). Repair of infarcted myocardium by autologous intracoronary mononuclear bone marrow cell transplantation in humans. Circulation, 106:1913 - 1918.

Takahashi T et al. (2003). Ascorbic acid enhances differentiation of embryonic stem cells into cardiac myocytes. Circulation, 107(14):1912 - 1916.

Texas, Univ. of, MD Anderson Cancer Center, "Stem cells in blood restore damaged heart muscle," press release, 10/20/2003.

Thomson J et al. (2001). Multilineage differentiation from human embryonic stem cells lines. Stem Cells, 19:193 - 204.

Toma C et al. (2002). Human mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to a cardiomyocyte phenotype in the adult murine heart. Circulation, 105:93 - 98.

Trounson A et al. (2001). The derivation and potential use of human embryonic stem cells. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 13:523 - 532.

Trounson A, (2002). "Stem cell cloning not needed, says scientist", The Age (Melbourne), 7/29/02.

Trounson A, (2002). "Stem cell research outpaces cloning", The Australian, 7/29/02.

Trounson A, (2002). "Therapeutic cloning no longer necessary: expert", AAP Newsfeed, 7/29/02.

Tse HF et al., (2003). Angiogenesis in ischaemic myocardium by intramyocardial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell implantation. Lancet, 361:47 - 49.

United Press International, "Bone marrow cells can become heart cells." 3/11/2003.

Volpicelli F et al. (2004). Enhancement of dopaminergic differentiation in proliferating midbrain neuroblasts by sonic hedgehog and ascorbic acid. Neural. Plast., 11(1-2):45 - 57.

Weissman I., Testimony before the President's Council on Bioethics, 2/13/2002.

Yang L et al. (2002). In virtro transdifferentiation of adult hepatic stem cells into pancreatic endocrine hormone producing cells. Proceed. Natl Acad. Sciences, 99:8078 - 8083.


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